Gene Ontology (GO) ID Definitions

Terms are taken from the Gene Ontology Consortium; a full listing of all Gene Ontology Consortium terms is available here.

Term: Germ cell development
GO ID: GO:0007281
Definition: The proliferation, growth and differentiation of cells specified to produce haploid gametes
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Germ cell migration
GO ID: GO:0008354
Definition: The movement of primordial germ cells to gonadal ridges where they differentiate into oogonia
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Oogenesis
GO ID: GO:0007292
Definition: The process of egg formation
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Oocyte growth
GO ID: GO:0001555
Definition: Increase in oocyte diameter
Definition reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Ooctye maturation
GO ID: GO:0001556
Definition: Maturation of oocytes arrested at the dictyate stage of the first meiotic division, characterized by germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB)
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Follicle development
GO ID: GO:0001541
Definition: All developmental aspects of all ovarian follicle stages
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Follicle endowment
GO ID: GO:0001551
Definition: Association of oocytes with supporting epithelial granulosa cells to form primordial follicles
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Initiation of primordial follicle growth
GO ID: GO:0001544
Definition: Increase in size of primordial follicles including proliferation and shape changes of granulosa and/or theca cells until oocyte is surrounded by one layer of cuboidal shaped granulosa cells (primary follicle)
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Primary follicle growth
GO ID: GO:0001545
Definition: Increase in size of primary follicles including oocyte growth and granulosa and/or theca cell proliferation until more than one layer of granulosa cells is present (preantral follicle)
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Preantral follicle growth
GO ID: GO:0001546
Definition: Increase in size of follicles surrounded by two or more layers of granulosa cells up to the onset of antrum formation
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Antral follicle growth
GO ID: GO:0001547
Definition: Increase in size of antral follicles due to cell proliferation and/or growth of the antral cavity
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Follicle antrum/follicular fluid formation
GO ID: GO:0001548
Definition: Formation of one central, fluid-fillled cavity separating the oocyte/cumulus complex from mural granulosa and theca cells
Definition Reference: http://ovary.staford.edu

Term: Cumulus cell differentiation
GO ID: GO:0001549
Definition: Subpopulation of granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte differentiating into cells with unique morphology and gene expression
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Cumulus expansion
GO ID: GO:0001550
Definition: Increase in size of the cumulus surrounding the oocyte including change in morphology due to proliferation and dispersion of cumulus cells
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Follicle atresia
GO ID: GO:0001552
Definition: Ovarian follicle demise mediated by apoptosis
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Steroid metabolism
GO ID: GO:0008202
Definition: The metabolism of steroids, i.e. compounds with a 1,2,cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus
Definition Reference: ISBN:0198547684

Term: Ovulation
GO ID: GO:0001542
Definition: Processes leading to rupture the of the follicle releasing the oocyte outside the ovary, and the accompanied changes in the oocyte maturation and somatic cell differentiation
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Follicle rupture
GO ID: GO:0001543
Definition: Disruption of the theca and stroma cell layers releasing follicular fluid and ovarian surface epithelium from near the preovulatory follicle, accompanied by the oocyte
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Luteinization
GO ID: GO:0001553
Definition: Differentiation of theca and granulosa cells into luteal cells, including other processes involved in the formation of a corpus luteum after ovulation
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Luteolysis
GO ID: GO:0001554
Definition: Regression of corpora lutea
Definition Reference: http://ovary.stanford.edu

Term: Primordial germ cell
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Early-stage cell, specialized to produce haploid gametes
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Oocyte
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Developing female gamete
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Cumulus cell
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Specialized granulosa cells immediately adjacent to the oocyte , with gene expression pattern different from granulosa cells
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Granulosa cell
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Cells lining the ovarian follicle; after ovulation granulosa cells become granulosa corpus luteum cells
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Theca cell
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Steroidogenic cells lining the outer layer of the follicle, formed in primary and larger follicles
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Luteal cell
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Cells of the corpus luteum; derived from granulosa and theca cells
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Small luteal cell
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Luteal cells of smaller size usually derived from the theca layer
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Large luteal cell
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Luteal cells of larger size usually derived from the granulosa layer
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Stromal cell
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Loose connective tissue cells lining the developing follicle
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Surface epithelium
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Covering of cells surrounding the ovarian follicle
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Ovarian tumor
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Mass of tissue resulting from uncontrolled cell division in the ovary
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Follicular fluid
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Liquid found in the follicular antrum with constituent proteins from granulosa cells, oocytes, and the general circulation
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Primordial
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Follicles at this stage are identified by a single layer of follicular cells.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Primary
GO ID: N/A
Definition: At this stage, follicles have at least two layers of follicular cells surrounded by theca.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Secondary
GO ID: N/A
Definition: At this stage, the antrum, a fluid-filled space within the follicle, appears.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Antral
GO ID: N/A
Definition: By the antral stage, the antrum is large; the oocyte, which is surrounded by the corona radiata, projects into the antrum.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Preovulatory
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Largest follicles capable of responding to the ovulatory hormonal signals
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Corpus luteum
GO ID: N/A
Definition: After ovulation, theca and granulosa cells become the corpus luteum, secreting progesterone to support implantation and pregnancy.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: FSH
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Follicle stimulating hormone: a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary which stimulates follicle development and the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: LH / hCG
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Luteinizing hormone: a glycoprotein hormone released by the anterior pituitary, capable of inducing ovulation and the secretion of hormones by the ovaries. Human chorionic gonadotropin: a placental glycoprotein hormone, also capable of inducing ovulation, with a longer half-life than LH.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Steroids
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Hormones derived from modification of the cholesterol molecule
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Growth factors / cytokines
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Growth hormones are paracrinal peptides that control cellular growth, division, and maturation. Cytokines are small proteins that influence cell-cell interations, originally discovered based on their immune functions.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Eicosanoids
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Compound derived from arachidonic acid
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Ligand
GO ID: GO:0005102
Definition: Molecule which binds specifically to another molecule with high affinity
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Hormone
GO ID: GO:0005179
Definition: Signalling molecule which affects the behavior of another cell by binding to a specific receptor
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Cytokine
GO ID: GO:0005125
Definition: Secreted regulatory proteins that control the survival, growth, differentiation and effector function of tissues and cells
Definition Reference: ISBN:0198599471

Term: Growth factor
GO ID: GO:0008083
Definition: Peptides that controls various aspects of cellular growth, division and maturation
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Extracellular binding protein
GO ID: N/A
Definition: Secreted proteins capable of binding other proteins or small molecules
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Receptor
GO ID: GO:0004872
Definition: Molecule found either on the plasma membrane or within the cell nucleus that binds a specific ligand and transduces a specific physiological signal
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Cell adhesion molecule
GO ID: GO:0005194
Definition: Plasma membrane proteins involved in cell to cell contact
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Intracellular protein transport
GO ID: GO:0005478
Definition: Active movement of substances within a cell
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Channel / Pore class transporter
GO ID: GO:0015267
Definition: Structure in the plasma membrane allowing for either the active or passive movement (either entering or exiting cells) of specific or general substances
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Cytoskelton and structural proteins
GO ID: GO:0005200
Definition: Molecules important for maintaining intracellular architecture
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Tubulin binding
GO ID: GO:0015631
Definition: Binding to tubulin, an abundant cytoplasmic protein, the protomer for microtubule assembly
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Actin binding
GO ID: GO:0003779
Definition: Binding to actin, a filamentous protein involved both in muscle contraction and the formation of the cytoskeleton
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Microtubule binding
GO ID: GO:0008017
Definition: Binding to microtubules, cytoplasmic tubules consisting of tubulin heterodimers
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Cell organization
GO ID: GO:0016043
Definition: Any cellular process involved in the formation and organization of structures within a cell
Definition Reference: GO:mah

Term: Nuclear organization
GO ID: GO:0006997
Definition: Any cellular process involved in the formation and organization of the nucleus and its componants
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Chromosome organization
GO ID: GO:0007001
Definition: Any cellular process involved in the formation and organization of the chromosomes
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Cytoskeleton organization
GO ID: GO:0007010
Definition: The establishment, maintenance, and regulation of cytoskeletal structures
Definition Reference: SGD:mah

Term: Cell death / survival
GO ID: GO:0008219
Definition: No definition available.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Apoptosis
GO ID: GO:0006915
Definition: The intracellular, controlled process characterized by condensation and subsequent fragmentation of the cell nucleus during which the plasma membrane remains intact. The process of apoptosis begins with external or internal signals which trigger, directly or indirectly, a cascade of caspases and results in death of the cell. Characteristics are membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation and macrophage-mediate endocytosis
Definition Reference: IPR002182 NB-ARC domain, ISBN:0198506732, GO:curators

Term: Anti-apoptosis
GO ID: GO:0006916
Definition: A process which directly inhibits any of the steps required for cell death by apoptosis
Definition Reference: GO:curators

Term: Cell cycle
GO ID: GO:0007049
Definition: The sequence of events by which a cell and divides in two; comprises, at a minimum, replication and segregation of DNA; during the course of a cell cycle the cell usually also doubles its mass and duplicates all cytoplasmic organelles
Definition Reference: ISBN:0815316194, SGD:mah

Term: DNA replication
GO ID: GO:0006260
Definition: The process of duplicating a cell's entire sequence of DNA for the purpose of cell division
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Oncogenesis
GO ID: GO:0007048
Definition: The production of tumors
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Tumor suppressor
GO ID: GO:0008181
Definition: A factor which directly inhibits any of the steps required for oncogenesis
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Cell proliferation
GO ID: GO:0008284
Definition: The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of a cell population
Definition Reference: GO:mah, Sanger:mb

Term: Intracellular signalling cascade
GO ID: GO:0007242
Definition: A series of reactions, often converging on the production of cAMP, initiated by a single reaction or compound
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Metabolism
GO ID: GO:0008152
Definition: The totality of the chemical reactions and physical changes that occur in living organisms, comprising anabolism and catabolism; may be qualified to mean the chemical reactions and physical processes undergone by a particular substance, or class of substances, in a living organism
Definition Reference: ISBN:0198547684

Term: Protein biosynthesis
GO ID: GO:0006412
Definition: The totality of the processes required to produce a protein, including transcription, splicing, translation and post-translational modicification
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Protease inhibitor
GO ID: GO:0004866
Definition: A substance which prevents the catalytic hydrolysis of peptide bonds
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Protein metabolism and modification
GO ID: GO:0006411
Definition: No definition available.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Energy pathways
GO ID: GO:0006091
Definition: Catabolic pathways, such as the glycolytic cycle, that lead to the generation of energy currencies that can then be used to fuel cellular processes
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: DNA metabolism
GO ID: GO:0006259
Definition: The synthesis and degradation of DNA
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: DNA repair
GO ID: GO:0006281
Definition: No definition available.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: RNA metabolism
GO ID: GO:0016070
Definition: The synthesis and degradation of RNA
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: RNA processing
GO ID: GO:0006396
Definition: No definition available.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Enzyme
GO ID: GO:0003824
Definition: Any naturally occurring or synthetic macromoleular substance composed wholly or largely of protein, that catalyzes, more or less specifically, one or more (bio)chemical reactions at relatively low temperatures. The action of RNA that has catalytic activity (ribozyme) is often also regarded as enzymic. Nevertheless, enzymes are mainly proteinaceous and are often easily inactivated by heating or by protein-denaturing agents. The substances upon which they act are known as substrates, for which the enzyme possesses a specific binding or active site
Definition Reference: FB:ma

Term: Oxidoreductase
GO ID: GO:0016491
Definition: Enzyme catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions
Definition Reference: http://ca.expasy.org/enzyme

Term: Transferase
GO ID: GO:0016740
Definition: Enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a moiety between molecules
Definition Reference: http://ca.expasy.org/enzyme

Term: Hydrolase
GO ID: GO:0016787
Definition: Enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of one or more bonds
Definition Reference: http://ca.expasy.org/enzyme

Term: Peptidase / protease
GO ID: GO:0008233
Definition: Enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of a peptide bond
Definition Reference: http://ca.expasy.org/enzyme

Term: Lyase
GO ID: GO:0016829
Definition: Enzyme catalyzing the removal of a group, resulting in new double bond formation
Definition Reference: http://ca.expasy.org/enzyme

Term: Nucleic acid binding
GO ID: GO:0003676
Definition: Specific binding to either DNA or RNA
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: DNA binding
GO ID: GO:0003677
Definition: Specific binding to DNA
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Transcription factor
GO ID: GO:0003700
Definition: Any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription; includes both gene regulatory proteins as well as the general transcription factors
Definition Reference: ISBN:0815316194

Term: Isomerase
GO ID: GO:0016853
Definition: Enzyme catalyzing the conversion of molecules into positional isomers
Definition Reference: http://ca.expasy.org/enzyme

Term: Ligase
GO ID: GO:0016874
Definition: Enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two molecules
Definition Reference: http://ca.expasy.org/enzyme

Term: RNA binding
GO ID: GO:0003723
Definition: Specific binding to RNA
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Translation factor
GO ID: GO:0008135
Definition: No definition available.
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Extracellular matrix
GO ID: GO:0005578
Definition: A layer consisting mainly of proteins (especially collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (mostly as proteoglycans) that forms a sheet underlying cells such as endothelial and epithelial cells. The proteins are secreted by cells in the vicinity
Definition Reference: ISBN:0198547684

Term: Secreted
GO ID: GO:0005576
Definition: Any substance, including receptors, that contains a signal peptide identifying it for secretion and is, at least in part, pushed through the plasma membrane
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Plasma membrane
GO ID: GO:0005886
Definition: The external lipid bilayer of a cell
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Other membrane
GO ID: GO:0016020
Definition: Double layer of lipid molecules that encloses all cells, and, in eukaryotes, many organelles; may be a single or double lipid bilayer, also includes associated proteins
Definition Reference: ISBN:0815316194

Term: Cytoplasm
GO ID: GO:0005737
Definition: All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures
Definition Reference: ISBN:0198547684

Term: Cytoskeleton
GO ID: GO:0005856
Definition: Any of the various filamentous elements within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that remain after treatment of the cells with mild detergent to remove membrane constituents and soluble componens of the cytoplasm. The term embraces intermediate filaments, microfilaments, microtubules, and the microtrabecular lattice. The various elements of the cytoskeleton not only serve in the maintenance of cellular shape but also have roles in other cellular functions, including cellular movement, cell division, endocytosis, and movement of organelles
Definition Reference: ISBN:0198547684

Term: Mitochondrion
GO ID: GO:0005739
Definition: Organelle essential for aerobic respiration
Definition Reference: N/A

Term: Nucleus
GO ID: GO:0005634
Definition: An organelle of eukaryotic cells that contains the chromosomes. Except for the mitochondria it is the sole site of DNA replication and RNA synthesis in the cell
Definition Reference: ISBN:0198547684