This gene encodes a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. The ligands of this receptor include macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3), and myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1). Chemokines and their receptors mediated signal transduction are critical for the recruitment of effector immune cells to the site of inflammation. Knockout studies of the mouse homolog suggested the roles of this gene in host protection from inflammatory response, and susceptibility to virus and parasite. This gene and other chemokine receptor genes, including CCR2, CCRL2, CCR3, CCR5 and CCXCR1, are found to form a gene cluster on chromosome 3p.
Oogenesis, Oocyte maturation
Zhou C, et al reported the ovarian expression of chemokines and their receptors.
Recent studies suggest involvement of the immune system, including leukocytes and cytokines/chemokines, in various ovarian functions such as ovulation. Using the RT-PCR method, we examined expression of various chemokines and their receptors in normal mouse ovaries. Among seventeen examined chemokines (17 CC types and two CXC types), expressions of CC types MCP-1 and RANTES, and CXC type IP-10 were detected at high levels, while most CC types expressed at variable or low levels. Only five chemokines were not detected in the ovary. We next examined expression of chemokine receptors. CCR1 and CCR2, which are the receptors for MCP-1 and RANTES, were also expressed at constitutively high levels while others were not detectable. We further showed that a significant part of expression of both detected chemokines and receptors originated from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) circulating in the ovary. However, ovarian tissue was the major contributor of expression. Constitutive expression of several chemokines and their receptors suggests frequent migrations/movements of leukocytes in the ovary, which may be involved in ovarian functions other than ovulation.
Gene whose expression is detected by cDNA array hybridization: transporters, signal transduction Rozenn Dalbiès-Tran and Pascal Mermilloda
Expression regulated by
This gene was found in bovine oocyte by Dalbies-Tran R, Mermillod P. 2003 . The authors have analyzed gene expression in bovine oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) using heterologous hybridization onto cDNA array. Total RNA was purified from pools of over 200 oocytes either immediately after aspiration from follicles at the surface of slaughterhouse cow ovaries or following in vitro maturation. Radiolabeled cDNA probes were generated by reverse-transcription followed by linear PCR amplification and were hybridized to Atlas human cDNA arrays. To our knowledge, this is the first report of gene expression profiling by this technology in the mammalian female germ cell. Our results demonstrate that cDNA array screening is a suitable method for analyzing the transcription pattern in oocytes. About 300 identified genes were reproducibly shown to be expressed in the bovine oocyte, the largest profile available so far in this model. The relative abundance of most messenger RNAs appeared stable during IVM. However, 70 transcripts underwent a significant differential regulation (by a factor of at least two). Their potential role in the context of oocyte maturation is discussed. Together they constitute a molecular signature of the degree of oocyte cytoplasmic maturation achieved in vitro.