SET nuclear oncogene OKDB#: 3139
 Symbols: SET Species: human
 Synonyms: 2PP2A, IGAAD, TAF-I, I2PP2A, IPP2A2, PHAPII, TAF-IBETA,2PP2A, IGAAD, TAF-I, I2PP2A, IPP2A2, PHAPII, TAF-IBETA,2PP2A, IGAAD, I2PP2A, PHAPII, TAF-IBETA,INHIBITOR OF GZMA-ACTIVATED DNase, IGAAD  Locus: 9q34 in Homo sapiens


For retrieval of Nucleotide and Amino Acid sequences please go to: OMIM Entrez Gene
Mammalian Reproductive Genetics   Endometrium Database Resource   Orthologous Genes   UCSC Genome Browser    GEO Profiles new!   Amazonia (transcriptome data) new!

R-L INTERACTIONS   MGI

DNA Microarrays
SHOW DATA ...
link to BioGPS
General Comment

NCBI Summary: The protein encoded by this gene inhibits acetylation of nucleosomes, especially histone H4, by histone acetylases (HAT). This inhibition is most likely accomplished by masking histone lysines from being acetylated, and the consequence is to silence HAT-dependent transcription. The encoded protein is part of a complex localized to the endoplasmic reticulum but is found in the nucleus and inhibits apoptosis following attack by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This protein can also enhance DNA replication of the adenovirus genome. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
General function Chromosome organization, Cell cycle regulation
Comment
Cellular localization Other Membrane, Nuclear
Comment ER
Ovarian function Steroid metabolism, Oocyte maturation, Early embryo development
Comment SET/PP2A system regulates androgen production in ovarian follicles in vitro. Gao LL et al. SET has multiple cell functions including nucleosome assembly, histone binding, transcription control, and cell apoptosis. In ovaries SET is predominantly expressed in theca cells and oocytes. In our study, SET overexpression in theca cells stimulated testosterone production whereas SET knockdown decreased testosterone production. Moreover, SET negatively regulated PP2A activity. Treatment with PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) led to increased testosterone synthesis, while treatment with PP2A activators resulted in the decreased testosterone synthesis. Furthermore, PP2A knockdown confirmed the key role of PP2A in the testosterone synthesis, and OA was able to block the AdH1-SiRNA/SET-mediated inhibition of testosterone production. The central role of PP2A in SET-mediated regulation of testosterone production was confirmed by the finding that SET promoted the lyase activity of P450c17 and that PP2A inhibited its lyase activity. Taken together, these results reveal a specific, SET-initiated, PP2A-mediated, pathway that leads to the increased lyase activity of P450c17 and testosterone biosynthesis. The PP2A Inhibitor I2PP2A Is Essential for Sister Chromatid Segregation in Oocyte Meiosis II. Chambon JP et al. Haploid gametes are generated through two consecutive meiotic divisions, with the segregation of chromosome pairs?in meiosis I and sister chromatids in meiosis II. Separase-mediated stepwise removal of cohesion, first from chromosome arms and later from the centromere region, is a prerequisite for maintaining sister chromatids together until their separation in meiosis II [1]. In all model organisms, centromeric cohesin is protected from separase-dependent removal in meiosis I through the activity of PP2A-B56 phosphatase, which is recruited to centromeres by shugoshin/MEI-S332 (Sgo) [2-5]. How this protection of centromeric cohesin is removed in meiosis II is not entirely clear; we find that all the PP2A subunits remain colocalized with the cohesin subunit Rec8 at the centromere of metaphase II chromosomes. Here, we show that sister chromatid separation in oocytes depends on a PP2A inhibitor, namely I2PP2A. I2PP2A colocalizes with the PP2A enzyme at centromeres at metaphase II, independently of bipolar attachment. When I2PP2A is depleted, sister chromatids fail to segregate during meiosis II. Our findings demonstrate that in oocytes I2PP2A is essential for faithful sister chromatid segregation?by mediating deprotection of centromeric cohesin in meiosis II.
Expression regulated by
Comment
Ovarian localization Oocyte, Theca
Comment Overexpression of SET? a protein localizing to centromeres, causes precocious separation of chromatids during the first meiosis of mouse oocyte. Qi ST et al. Chromosome segregation in mammalian oocyte meiosis is an error-prone process, and any mistake in this process may result in aneuploidy, which is the main cause of infertility, abortion and many genetic diseases. It is now well known that shugoshin and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) play important roles in the protection of centromeric cohesion during the first meiosis. PP2A can antagonize the phosphorylation of rec8-cohesin at the centromeres and thus prevent rec8 from cleavage and maintain the cohesion of chromatids. SET?s a novel protein that physically interacts with shugoshin and inhibits PP2A activity. We thus hypothesized that SET?may regulate cohesion protection and chromosome segregation during oocyte meiotic maturation. Here we report for the first time the expression, subcellular localization and functions of SET?during mouse oocyte meiosis. Immunobloting analysis showed that the expression level of SET?was stable from the GV stage to the MII stage of oocyte meiosis. Immunofluorescent analysis showed SET?accumulation in the nucleus at the GV stage, while it was targeted mainly to the inner centromere area and faintly localized to the interchromatid axes from GVBD to MI stages. At the MII stage, SET?still localized at the inner centromere area, but could relocalize to kinetochores in a process perhaps depending on the tension on the centromeres. SET?partly co-localized with PP2A at the inner centromere area. Overexpression of SET?in mouse oocytes caused precocious separation of sister chromatids, but depletion of SET?by RNAi showed little effects on the meiotic maturation process. Taken together, our results suggest that SET? even though it localizes to centromeres, is not essential for chromosome separation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation, although its forced overexpression causes premature chromatid separation.
Follicle stages Primordial
Comment Expression of SET Protein in the Ovaries of Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Boqun X 2013 et al. Background. We previously found that expression of SET gene was up-regulated in polycystic ovaries by using microarray. It suggested that SET may be an attractive candidate regulator involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, expression and cellular localization of SET protein were investigated in human polycystic and normal ovaries. Method. Ovarian tissues, six normal ovaries and six polycystic ovaries, were collected during transsexual operation and surgical treatment with the signed consent form. The cellular localization of SET protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of SET protein were analyzed by Western Blot. Result. SET protein was expressed predominantly in the theca cells and oocytes of human ovarian follicles in both PCOS ovarian tissues and normal ovarian tissues. The level of SET protein expression in polycystic ovaries was triple higher than that in normal ovaries (P < 0.05). Conclusion. SET was overexpressed in polycystic ovaries more than that in normal ovaries. Combined with its localization in theca cells, SET may participate in regulating ovarian androgen biosynthesis and the pathophysiology of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. ///////////////////////// Arraztoa JA, et al 2005 reported the identification of genes expressed in primate primordial oocytes.
Phenotypes
Mutations

Species: mouse -
type: null mutation
fertility: infertile - ovarian defect
Comment: The PP2A Inhibitor I2PP2A Is Essential for Sister Chromatid Segregation in Oocyte Meiosis II. Chambon JP et al. Haploid gametes are generated through two consecutive meiotic divisions, with the segregation of chromosome pairs?in meiosis I and sister chromatids in meiosis II. Separase-mediated stepwise removal of cohesion, first from chromosome arms and later from the centromere region, is a prerequisite for maintaining sister chromatids together until their separation in meiosis II [1]. In all model organisms, centromeric cohesin is protected from separase-dependent removal in meiosis I through the activity of PP2A-B56 phosphatase, which is recruited to centromeres by shugoshin/MEI-S332 (Sgo) [2-5]. How this protection of centromeric cohesin is removed in meiosis II is not entirely clear; we find that all the PP2A subunits remain colocalized with the cohesin subunit Rec8 at the centromere of metaphase II chromosomes. Here, we show that sister chromatid separation in oocytes depends on a PP2A inhibitor, namely I2PP2A. I2PP2A colocalizes with the PP2A enzyme at centromeres at metaphase II, independently of bipolar attachment. When I2PP2A is depleted, sister chromatids fail to segregate during meiosis II. Our findings demonstrate that in oocytes I2PP2A is essential for faithful sister chromatid segregation?by mediating deprotection of centromeric cohesin in meiosis II.

Links
OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man: an excellent source of general gene description and genetic information.)
OMIM \ Animal Model
KEGG Pathways
Recent Publications
Search for Antibody
Discuss..
blog comments powered by Disqus
Related Genes
Beta
Show data ...


created: 2006-06-21 10:42:04 by: Alex C Yee, hsuehlab   email: alex.c.yee@gmail.com
home page:
last update: 2013-07-24 10:22:19 by: Aaron J Hsueh, hsuehlab   email: aaron.hsueh@stanford.edu



Use the back button of your browser to return to the Gene List.

Click here to return to gene search form